5. Coding Particular Pacemaker Components

The Pacemaker code can be intricate and difficult to follow. This chapter has some high-level descriptions of how individual components work.

5.1. Fencer

pacemaker-fenced is the Pacemaker daemon that handles fencing requests. In the broadest terms, fencing works like this:

  1. The initiator (an external program such as stonith_admin, or the cluster itself via the controller) asks the local fencer, “Hey, could you please fence this node?”
  2. The local fencer asks all the fencers in the cluster (including itself), “Hey, what fencing devices do you have access to that can fence this node?”
  3. Each fencer in the cluster replies with a list of available devices that it knows about.
  4. Once the original fencer gets all the replies, it asks the most appropriate fencer peer to actually carry out the fencing. It may send out more than one such request if the target node must be fenced with multiple devices.
  5. The chosen fencer(s) call the appropriate fencing resource agent(s) to do the fencing, then reply to the original fencer with the result.
  6. The original fencer broadcasts the result to all fencers.
  7. Each fencer sends the result to each of its local clients (including, at some point, the initiator).

A more detailed description follows.

5.1.1. Initiating a fencing request

A fencing request can be initiated by the cluster or externally, using the libstonithd API.

  • The cluster always initiates fencing via daemons/controld/controld_fencing.c:te_fence_node() (which calls the fence() API method). This occurs when a transition graph synapse contains a CRM_OP_FENCE XML operation.
  • The main external clients are stonith_admin and cts-fence-helper. The DLM project also uses Pacemaker for fencing.

Highlights of the fencing API:

  • stonith_api_new() creates and returns a new stonith_t object, whose cmds member has methods for connect, disconnect, fence, etc.
  • the fence() method creates and sends a STONITH_OP_FENCE XML request with the desired action and target node. Callers do not have to choose or even have any knowledge about particular fencing devices.

5.1.2. Fencing queries

The function calls for a fencing request go something like this:

The local fencer receives the client’s request via an IPC or messaging layer callback, which calls

  • stonith_command(), which (for requests) calls
    • handle_request(), which (for STONITH_OP_FENCE from a client) calls
      • initiate_remote_stonith_op(), which creates a STONITH_OP_QUERY XML request with the target, desired action, timeout, etc. then broadcasts the operation to the cluster group (i.e. all fencer instances) and starts a timer. The query is broadcast because (1) location constraints might prevent the local node from accessing the stonith device directly, and (2) even if the local node does have direct access, another node might be preferred to carry out the fencing.

Each fencer receives the original fencer’s STONITH_OP_QUERY broadcast request via IPC or messaging layer callback, which calls:

  • stonith_command(), which (for requests) calls

    • handle_request(), which (for STONITH_OP_QUERY from a peer) calls
    • stonith_query(), which calls
      • get_capable_devices() with stonith_query_capable_device_cb() to add device information to an XML reply and send it. (A message is considered a reply if it contains T_STONITH_REPLY, which is only set by fencer peers, not clients.)

The original fencer receives all peers’ STONITH_OP_QUERY replies via IPC or messaging layer callback, which calls:

  • stonith_command(), which (for replies) calls
    • handle_reply() which (for STONITH_OP_QUERY) calls
      • process_remote_stonith_query(), which allocates a new query result structure, parses device information into it, and adds it to the operation object. It increments the number of replies received for this operation, and compares it against the expected number of replies (i.e. the number of active peers), and if this is the last expected reply, calls
        • request_peer_fencing(), which calculates the timeout and sends STONITH_OP_FENCE request(s) to carry out the fencing. If the target node has a fencing “topology” (which allows specifications such as “this node can be fenced either with device A, or devices B and C in combination”), it will choose the device(s), and send out as many requests as needed. If it chooses a device, it will choose the peer; a peer is preferred if it has “verified” access to the desired device, meaning that it has the device “running” on it and thus has a monitor operation ensuring reachability.

5.1.3. Fencing operations

Each STONITH_OP_FENCE request goes something like this:

The chosen peer fencer receives the STONITH_OP_FENCE request via IPC or messaging layer callback, which calls:

  • stonith_command(), which (for requests) calls
    • handle_request(), which (for STONITH_OP_FENCE from a peer) calls
      • stonith_fence(), which calls
        • schedule_stonith_command() (using supplied device if F_STONITH_DEVICE was set, otherwise the highest-priority capable device obtained via get_capable_devices() with stonith_fence_get_devices_cb()), which adds the operation to the device’s pending operations list and triggers processing.

The chosen peer fencer’s mainloop is triggered and calls

  • stonith_device_dispatch(), which calls
    • stonith_device_execute(), which pops off the next item from the device’s pending operations list. If acting as the (internally implemented) watchdog agent, it panics the node, otherwise it calls
      • stonith_action_create() and stonith_action_execute_async() to call the fencing agent.

The chosen peer fencer’s mainloop is triggered again once the fencing agent returns, and calls

  • stonith_action_async_done() which adds the results to an action object then calls its
    • done callback (st_child_done()), which calls schedule_stonith_command() for a new device if there are further required actions to execute or if the original action failed, then builds and sends an XML reply to the original fencer (via send_async_reply()), then checks whether any pending actions are the same as the one just executed and merges them if so.

5.1.4. Fencing replies

The original fencer receives the STONITH_OP_FENCE reply via IPC or messaging layer callback, which calls:

  • stonith_command(), which (for replies) calls
    • handle_reply(), which calls
      • fenced_process_fencing_reply(), which calls either request_peer_fencing() (to retry a failed operation, or try the next device in a topology if appropriate, which issues a new STONITH_OP_FENCE request, proceeding as before) or finalize_op() (if the operation is definitively failed or successful).
        • finalize_op() broadcasts the result to all peers.

Finally, all peers receive the broadcast result and call

  • finalize_op(), which sends the result to all local clients.

5.1.5. Fencing History

The fencer keeps a running history of all fencing operations. The bulk of the relevant code is in fenced_history.c and ensures the history is synchronized across all nodes even if a node leaves and rejoins the cluster.

In libstonithd, this information is represented by stonith_history_t and is queryable by the stonith_api_operations_t:history() method. crm_mon and stonith_admin use this API to display the history.

5.2. Scheduler

pacemaker-schedulerd is the Pacemaker daemon that runs the Pacemaker scheduler for the controller, but “the scheduler” in general refers to related library code in libpe_status and libpe_rules (lib/pengine/*.c), and some of libpacemaker (lib/pacemaker/pcmk_sched_*.c).

The purpose of the scheduler is to take a CIB as input and generate a transition graph (list of actions that need to be taken) as output.

The controller invokes the scheduler by contacting the scheduler daemon via local IPC. Tools such as crm_simulate, crm_mon, and crm_resource can also invoke the scheduler, but do so by calling the library functions directly. This allows them to run using a CIB_file without the cluster needing to be active.

The main entry point for the scheduler code is lib/pacemaker/pcmk_sched_allocate.c:pcmk__schedule_actions(). It sets defaults and calls a series of functions for the scheduling. Some key steps:

  • unpack_cib() parses most of the CIB XML into data structures, and determines the current cluster status.
  • apply_node_criteria() applies factors that make resources prefer certain nodes, such as shutdown locks, location constraints, and stickiness.
  • pcmk__create_internal_constraints() creates internal constraints, such as the implicit ordering for group members, or start actions being implicitly ordered before promote actions.
  • pcmk__handle_rsc_config_changes() processes resource history entries in the CIB status section. This is used to decide whether certain actions need to be done, such as deleting orphan resources, forcing a restart when a resource definition changes, etc.
  • allocate_resources() assigns resources to nodes.
  • schedule_resource_actions() schedules resource-specific actions (which might or might not end up in the final graph).
  • pcmk__apply_orderings() processes ordering constraints in order to modify action attributes such as optional or required.
  • pcmk__create_graph() creates the transition graph.

5.2.1. Challenges

Working with the scheduler is difficult. Challenges include:

  • It is far too much code to keep more than a small portion in your head at one time.
  • Small changes can have large (and unexpected) effects. This is why we have a large number of regression tests (cts/cts-scheduler), which should be run after making code changes.
  • It produces an insane amount of log messages at debug and trace levels. You can put resource ID(s) in the PCMK_trace_tags environment variable to enable trace-level messages only when related to specific resources.
  • Different parts of the main pe_working_set_t structure are finalized at different points in the scheduling process, so you have to keep in mind whether information you’re using at one point of the code can possibly change later. For example, data unpacked from the CIB can safely be used anytime after unpack_cib(), but actions may become optional or required anytime before pcmk__create_graph(). There’s no easy way to deal with this.
  • Many names of struct members, functions, etc., are suboptimal, but are part of the public API and cannot be changed until an API backward compatibility break.

5.2.2. Cluster Working Set

The main data object for the scheduler is pe_working_set_t, which contains all information needed about nodes, resources, constraints, etc., both as the raw CIB XML and parsed into more usable data structures, plus the resulting transition graph XML. The variable name is usually data_set.

5.2.3. Resources

pe_resource_t is the data object representing cluster resources. A resource has a variant: primitive (a.k.a. native), group, clone, or bundle.

The resource object has members for two sets of methods, resource_object_functions_t from the libpe_status public API, and resource_alloc_functions_t whose implementation is internal to libpacemaker. The actual functions vary by variant.

The object functions have basic capabilities such as unpacking the resource XML, and determining the current or planned location of the resource.

The allocation functions have more obscure capabilities needed for scheduling, such as processing location and ordering constraints. For example, pcmk__create_internal_constraints() simply calls the internal_constraints() method for each top-level resource in the cluster.

5.2.4. Nodes

Allocation of resources to nodes is done by choosing the node with the highest score for a given resource. The scheduler does a bunch of processing to generate the scores, then the actual allocation is straightforward.

Node lists are frequently used. For example, pe_working_set_t has a nodes member which is a list of all nodes in the cluster, and pe_resource_t has a running_on member which is a list of all nodes on which the resource is (or might be) active. These are lists of pe_node_t objects.

The pe_node_t object contains a struct pe_node_shared_s *details member with all node information that is independent of resource allocation (the node name, etc.).

The working set’s nodes member contains the original of this information. All other node lists contain copies of pe_node_t where only the details member points to the originals in the working set’s nodes list. In this way, the other members of pe_node_t (such as weight, which is the node score) may vary by node list, while the common details are shared.

5.2.5. Actions

pe_action_t is the data object representing actions that might need to be taken. These could be resource actions, cluster-wide actions such as fencing a node, or “pseudo-actions” which are abstractions used as convenient points for ordering other actions against.

It has a flags member which is a bitmask of enum pe_action_flags. The most important of these are pe_action_runnable (if not set, the action is “blocked” and cannot be added to the transition graph) and pe_action_optional (actions with this set will not be added to the transition graph; actions often start out as optional, and may become required later).

5.2.6. Orderings

Ordering constraints are simple in concept, but they are one of the most important, powerful, and difficult to follow aspects of the scheduler code.

pe__ordering_t is the data object representing an ordering, better thought of as a relationship between two actions, since the relation can be more complex than just “this one runs after that one”.

For an ordering “A then B”, the code generally refers to A as “first” or “before”, and B as “then” or “after”.

Much of the power comes from enum pe_ordering, which are flags that determine how an ordering behaves. There are many obscure flags with big effects. A few examples:

  • pe_order_none means the ordering is disabled and will be ignored. It’s 0, meaning no flags set, so it must be compared with equality rather than pcmk_is_set().
  • pe_order_optional means the ordering does not make either action required, so it only applies if they both become required for other reasons.
  • pe_order_implies_first means that if action B becomes required for any reason, then action A will become required as well.